- Number of dwellings: new homes built annually since 1971.
- Left axis (bars): total number of new dwellings per year.
- Right axis (line): dwellings per 1000 inhabitants.
- Construction period: number of today existing dwellings per period of construction. The red bar is a final estimate based on the current pace of construction. If the pace remains as 2021 (95.000 per year), the number of houses built between 2021 and 2040 will be of ≈1.800.000.
- Housing surplus or deficit: difference between housing growth and population growth. Blue color implies housing surplus; yellow color implies housing deficit.
- Cement consumption, Spain.
- Left axis (bars): cement consumption per year, in metric tons.
- Right axis (line): real housing price1 in euros per square meter.
Interpretation and observations
The evolution of the housing stock is a key factor in the supply balance. A couple of observations from the previous charts:
- Observation A: the number of houses built per year dropped drastically in 2009.
- Observation B: the houses per 1000 inhabitants increased from 1971 to 2000.
- Observation C: most of the current Spain houses were built between 1961 and 1980.
- Observation D: the stock has experienced a couple of deficit years since 2017.
- Observation E: the cement consumption and the real price correlate positively.
- Housing stock, from 1971 to 2000, according to Atlas Digital de las Áreas Urbanas (Parque de Viviendas > Viviendas según tipo > Viviendas familiares > Select from available years 1970, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011 > Tabla and Sintesis): Link. Based on the data from 1970, 1981 and 1991, the remaining years gaps have been estimated, in a similar way as done by Banco de España (Observatorio de Vivienda y Suelo > Boletines periódicos > Boletín Anual 2021 > Tabla 8.1): Link
- Housing stock, from 2001 onwards (Total de viviendas por comunidades autónomas y provincias): Link
- Buildings per period of construction (Nacional> Viviendas > Número de viviendas principales según tipo de edificación y año de construcción): Link
- Apparent cement consumption (Housing prices from 1964 to 1984 have been extrapolated based in this variable): Link
- Housing prices, from 1985 to 2006, according to Sociedad de Tasación (Access to data is under request, but can be seen in the linked publication): Publication, Link
- Housing prices, from 2007 onwards, according to the notaries (Grupo 5 > Acto 501 - Compraventa inmuebles > Inmuebles en fincas urbanas, viviendas): Link
- Inflation data (Table: average inflation Spain (CPI) - by year): Link